↓ Skip to main content

Out-of-pocket expenditures for hospital care in Iran: who is at risk of incurring catastrophic payments?

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, September 2011
Altmetric Badge

Mentioned by

twitter
1 tweeter

Citations

dimensions_citation
39 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
63 Mendeley
Title
Out-of-pocket expenditures for hospital care in Iran: who is at risk of incurring catastrophic payments?
Published in
International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, September 2011
DOI 10.1007/s10754-011-9099-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mohammad Hajizadeh, Hong Son Nghiem

Abstract

Since the beginning of 1980s, the Iranian health care system has undergone several reforms designed to increase accessibility of health services. Notwithstanding these reforms, out-of-pocket payments which create a barrier to access health services contribute almost half of total health are financing in Iran. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding about the inequality and determinants of the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and the related catastrophic expenditure (CE) for hospital services in Iran using a nationwide survey data, the 2003 Utilisation of Health Services Survey (UHSS). The concentration index and the Heckman selection model were used to assess inequality and factors associated with these expenditures. Inequality analysis suggests that the CE is concentrated among households in lower socioeconomic levels. The results of the Heckman selection model indicate that factors such as length of stay, admission to a hospital owned by private sector or Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and living in remote areas are positively associated with higher OOPE. Results of the ordered-probit selection model demonstrate that length of stay, lower household wealth index, and admission to a private hospital are major factors contributing to the increase in the probability of CE. Also, we find that households living in East Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Sistan and Balochestan face a higher level of CE. Based on our findings, the current employer-sponsored health insurance system does not offer equal protection against hospital expenditure in Iran. It seems that a single universal health insurance scheme that covers health services for all Iranian-regardless of their employment status-can better protect households from catastrophic health spending.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 63 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Nigeria 1 2%
United Kingdom 1 2%
Iran, Islamic Republic of 1 2%
Unknown 60 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 22%
Researcher 13 21%
Student > Master 10 16%
Unspecified 9 14%
Student > Bachelor 5 8%
Other 12 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 14 22%
Medicine and Dentistry 13 21%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 13 21%
Social Sciences 12 19%
Nursing and Health Professions 4 6%
Other 7 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 February 2012.
All research outputs
#2,902,516
of 3,616,176 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
#44
of 47 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#55,271
of 76,482 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
#3
of 3 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 3,616,176 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 47 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.3. This one scored the same or higher as 3 of them.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 76,482 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 3 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.