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A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Molecular Evolution, June 1980
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#24 of 1,186)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (92nd percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (93rd percentile)

Mentioned by

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3 policy sources
twitter
1 tweeter
patent
15 patents
wikipedia
2 Wikipedia pages

Citations

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17807 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
2565 Mendeley
citeulike
17 CiteULike
Title
A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences
Published in
Journal of Molecular Evolution, June 1980
DOI 10.1007/bf01731581
Pubmed ID
Authors

Motoo Kimura

Abstract

Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 2,565 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 35 1%
Brazil 23 <1%
United Kingdom 21 <1%
Germany 21 <1%
Spain 12 <1%
Italy 7 <1%
France 6 <1%
Mexico 6 <1%
Japan 5 <1%
Other 68 3%
Unknown 2361 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 606 24%
Researcher 471 18%
Student > Master 388 15%
Student > Bachelor 262 10%
Unspecified 208 8%
Other 630 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1427 56%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 369 14%
Unspecified 283 11%
Environmental Science 138 5%
Immunology and Microbiology 65 3%
Other 283 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 19. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 August 2018.
All research outputs
#843,423
of 13,505,887 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Molecular Evolution
#24
of 1,186 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#19,696
of 279,307 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Molecular Evolution
#1
of 15 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,505,887 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,186 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.2. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 279,307 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 15 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.