Recent advances within the field of proteomics, including both upstream and downstream protocols, have fuelled a transition from simple protein identification to functional analysis. A battery of proteomics approaches is now being employed for the analysis of protein expression levels, the monitoring of cellular activities and for gaining an increased understanding into biochemical pathways. Combined, these approaches are changing the way we study disease by allowing accurate and targeted, large scale protein analysis, which will provide invaluable insight into disease pathogenesis. Neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), prion disease, and other diseases that affect the neuromuscular system, are a leading cause of disability in the aging population. There are no effective intervention strategies for these disorders and diagnosis is challenging as it relies primarily on clinical symptomatic features, which often overlap at early stages of disease. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop reliable biomarkers to improve early and specific diagnosis, to track disease progression, to measure molecular responses towards treatment regimes and ultimately devise new therapeutic strategies. To accomplish this, a better understanding of disease mechanisms is needed. In this review we summarize recent advances in the field of proteomics applicable to neurodegenerative disorders, and how these advances are fueling our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these complex disorders.