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Focusing on butterfly eyespot focus: uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies in nymphalid butterflies

Overview of attention for article published in SpringerPlus, August 2016
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Title
Focusing on butterfly eyespot focus: uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies in nymphalid butterflies
Published in
SpringerPlus, August 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40064-016-2969-8
Pubmed ID
Authors

Masaki Iwata, Joji M. Otaki

Abstract

Developmental studies on butterfly wing color patterns often focus on eyespots. A typical eyespot (such as that of Bicyclus anynana) has a few concentric rings of dark and light colors and a white spot (called a focus) at the center. The prospective eyespot center during the early pupal stage is known to act as an organizing center. It has often been assumed, according to gradient models for positional information, that a white spot in adult wings corresponds to an organizing center and that the size of the white spot indicates how active that organizing center was. However, there is no supporting evidence for these assumptions. To evaluate the feasibility of these assumptions in nymphalid butterflies, we studied the unique color patterns of Calisto tasajera (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), which have not been analyzed before in the literature. In the anterior forewing, one white spot was located at the center of an eyespot, but another white spot associated with either no or only a small eyespot was present in the adjacent compartment. The anterior hindwing contained two adjacent white spots not associated with eyespots, one of which showed a sparse pattern. The posterior hindwing contained two adjacent pear-shaped eyespots, and the white spots were located at the proximal side or even outside the eyespot bodies. The successive white spots within a single compartment along the midline in the posterior hindwing showed a possible trajectory of a positional determination process for the white spots. Several cases of focus-less eyespots in other nymphalid butterflies were also presented. These results argue for the uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies, suggesting that an eyespot organizing center does not necessarily differentiate into a white spot and that a prospective white spot does not necessarily signify organizing activity for an eyespot. Incorporation of these results in future models for butterfly wing color pattern formation is encouraged.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 13 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 1 8%
Unknown 12 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 31%
Student > Bachelor 2 15%
Student > Master 2 15%
Researcher 2 15%
Professor > Associate Professor 1 8%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 2 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 54%
Environmental Science 1 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 8%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 8%
Unknown 3 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 August 2016.
All research outputs
#20,337,788
of 22,883,326 outputs
Outputs from SpringerPlus
#1,461
of 1,851 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#319,401
of 364,244 outputs
Outputs of similar age from SpringerPlus
#197
of 228 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,883,326 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,851 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.7. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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