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Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice

Overview of attention for article published in NeuroMolecular Medicine, January 2007
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#1 of 329)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

2 news outlets
1 blog
482 tweeters
12 patents
216 Facebook pages
4 Wikipedia pages
347 Google+ users
2 Redditors
1 video uploader


66 Dimensions

Readers on

39 Mendeley
1 CiteULike
Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice
Published in
NeuroMolecular Medicine, January 2007
DOI 10.1385/nmm:9:1:83
Pubmed ID

Michael S. Petrik, Margaret C. Wong, Rena C. Tabata, Robert F. Garry, Christopher A. Shaw


Gulf War illness (GWI) affects a significant percentage of veterans of the 1991 conflict, but its origin remains unknown. Associated with some cases of GWI are increased incidences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders. Whereas many environmental factors have been linked to GWI, the role of the anthrax vaccine has come under increasing scrutiny. Among the vaccine's potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene. To examine whether these compounds might contribute to neuronal deficits associated with GWI, an animal model for examining the potential neurological impact of aluminum hydroxide, squalene, or aluminum hydroxide combined with squalene was developed. Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. All mice were subjected to a battery of motor and cognitive-behavioral tests over a 6-mo period postinjections. Following sacrifice, central nervous system tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry for evidence of inflammation and cell death. Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength measured by the wire-mesh hang test (final deficit at 24 wk; about 50%). Significant cognitive deficits in water-maze learning were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group (4.3 errors per trial) compared with the controls (0.2 errors per trial) after 20 wk. Apoptotic neurons were identified in aluminum-injected animals that showed significantly increased activated caspase-3 labeling in lumbar spinal cord (255%) and primary motor cortex (192%) compared with the controls. Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord. The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 39 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
France 1 3%
United Kingdom 1 3%
Unknown 37 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 8 21%
Other 7 18%
Researcher 5 13%
Professor 5 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 13%
Other 9 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 12 31%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 28%
Unspecified 4 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 8%
Neuroscience 2 5%
Other 7 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 738. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 September 2019.
All research outputs
of 13,530,814 outputs
Outputs from NeuroMolecular Medicine
of 329 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 126,638 outputs
Outputs of similar age from NeuroMolecular Medicine
of 4 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,530,814 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 329 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 126,638 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 4 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them