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Explicit warnings reduce but do not eliminate the continued influence of misinformation

Overview of attention for article published in Memory & Cognition, December 2010
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#19 of 1,149)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (95th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
6 news outlets
blogs
3 blogs
twitter
4 tweeters
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page

Citations

dimensions_citation
79 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
156 Mendeley
Title
Explicit warnings reduce but do not eliminate the continued influence of misinformation
Published in
Memory & Cognition, December 2010
DOI 10.3758/mc.38.8.1087
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ullrich K. H. Ecker, Stephan Lewandowsky, David T. W. Tang

Abstract

Information that initially is presumed to be correct, but that is later retracted or corrected, often continues to influence memory and reasoning. This occurs even if the retraction itself is well remembered. The present study investigated whether the continued influence of misinformation can be reduced by explicitly warning people at the outset that they may be misled. A specific warning--giving detailed information about the continued influence effect (CIE)--succeeded in reducing the continued reliance on outdated information but did not eliminate it. A more general warning--reminding people that facts are not always properly checked before information is disseminated--was even less effective. In an additional experiment, a specific warning was combined with the provision of a plausible alternative explanation for the retracted information. This combined manipulation further reduced the CIE but still failed to eliminate it altogether.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 156 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 6 4%
Australia 2 1%
Chile 1 <1%
Switzerland 1 <1%
Russia 1 <1%
Unknown 145 93%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 36 23%
Student > Bachelor 28 18%
Student > Master 25 16%
Researcher 15 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 13 8%
Other 39 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 81 52%
Unspecified 17 11%
Social Sciences 15 10%
Computer Science 7 4%
Business, Management and Accounting 6 4%
Other 30 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 79. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 November 2018.
All research outputs
#196,937
of 12,961,283 outputs
Outputs from Memory & Cognition
#19
of 1,149 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#1,845
of 210,237 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Memory & Cognition
#1
of 23 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,961,283 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,149 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 210,237 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 23 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.