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Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides, and arrests related to drug addictions

Overview of attention for article published in Biological Trace Element Research, May 1990
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#8 of 1,353)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (95th percentile)

Mentioned by

policy
1 policy source
twitter
84 tweeters
facebook
2 Facebook pages
reddit
2 Redditors
video
1 video uploader

Citations

dimensions_citation
113 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
79 Mendeley
Title
Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides, and arrests related to drug addictions
Published in
Biological Trace Element Research, May 1990
DOI 10.1007/bf02990271
Pubmed ID
Authors

Gerhard N. Schrauzer, Krishna P. Shrestha

Abstract

Using data for 27 Texas counties from 1978-1987, it is shown that the incidence rates of suicide, homicide, and rape are significantly higher in counties whose drinking water supplies contain little or no lithium than in counties with water lithium levels ranging from 70-170 micrograms/L; the differences remain statistically significant (p less than 0.01) after corrections for population density. The corresponding associations with the incidence rates of robbery, burglary, and theft were statistically significant with p less than 0.05. These results suggest that lithium has moderating effects on suicidal and violent criminal behavior at levels that may be encountered in municipal water supplies. Comparisons of drinking water lithium levels, in the respective Texas counties, with the incidences of arrests for possession of opium, cocaine, and their derivatives (morphine, heroin, and codeine) from 1981-1986 also produced statistically significant inverse associations, whereas no significant or consistent associations were observed with the reported arrest rates for possession of marijuana, driving under the influence of alcohol, and drunkenness. These results suggest that lithium at low dosage levels has a generally beneficial effect on human behavior, which may be associated with the functions of lithium as a nutritionally-essential trace element. Subject to confirmation by controlled experiments with high-risk populations, increasing the human lithium intakes by supplementation, or the lithiation of drinking water is suggested as a possible means of crime, suicide, and drug-dependency reduction at the individual and community level.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 84 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 79 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 4 5%
Iran, Islamic Republic of 1 1%
Ireland 1 1%
Unknown 73 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 15 19%
Student > Master 14 18%
Student > Bachelor 12 15%
Student > Postgraduate 8 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 10%
Other 18 23%
Unknown 4 5%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 23 29%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 14%
Psychology 7 9%
Earth and Planetary Sciences 5 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 5%
Other 22 28%
Unknown 7 9%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 75. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 March 2020.
All research outputs
#259,113
of 14,565,765 outputs
Outputs from Biological Trace Element Research
#8
of 1,353 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#2,103
of 208,807 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Biological Trace Element Research
#2
of 42 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,565,765 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,353 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.6. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 208,807 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 42 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.