Eighty-six R1 QTLs accounting for 89.92% phenotypic variance in a soybean RIL population were identified using RTM-GWAS with SNPLDB marker which performed superior over CIM and MLM-GWAS with BIN/SNPLDB marker. A population (NJRIKY) composed of 427 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Kefeng-1 × NN1138-2 (MGII × MGV, MG maturity group) was applied for detecting flowering date (R1) quantitative trait locus (QTL) system in soybean. From a low-depth re-sequencing (~ 0.75 ×), 576,874 SNPs were detected and organized into 4737 BINs (recombination breakpoint determinations) and 3683 SNP linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs), respectively. Using the association mapping procedures "Restricted Two-stage Multi-locus Genome-wide Association Study" (RTM-GWAS), "Mixed Linear Model Genome-wide Association Study" (MLM-GWAS) and the linkage mapping procedure "Composite Interval Mapping" (CIM), 67, 36 and 10 BIN-QTLs and 86, 14 and 23 SNPLDB-QTLs were detected with their phenotypic variance explained (PVE) 88.70-89.92% (within heritability 98.2%), 146.41-353.62% (overflowing) and 88.29-172.34% (overflowing), respectively. The RTM-GWAS with SNPLDBs which showed to be more efficient and reasonable than the others was used to identify the R1 QTL system in NJRIKY. The detected 86 SNPLDB-QTLs with their PVE from 0.02 to 30.66% in a total of 89.92% covered 51 out of 104 R1 QTLs in 18 crosses in SoyBase and 26 out of 139 QTLs in a nested association mapping population, while the rest 29 QTLs were novel ones. From the QTL system, 52 candidate genes were annotated, including the verified gene E1, E2, E9 and J, and grouped into 3 categories of biological processes, among which 24 genes were enriched into three protein-protein interaction networks, suggesting gene networks working together. Since NJRIKY involves only MGII and MGV, the QTL/gene system among MG000-MGX should be explored further.