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Tumor cell survival pathways activated by photodynamic therapy: a molecular basis for pharmacological inhibition strategies

Overview of attention for article published in Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, October 2015
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82 Mendeley
Title
Tumor cell survival pathways activated by photodynamic therapy: a molecular basis for pharmacological inhibition strategies
Published in
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, October 2015
DOI 10.1007/s10555-015-9588-7
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mans Broekgaarden, Ruud Weijer, Thomas M. van Gulik, Michael R. Hamblin, Michal Heger

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. PDT comprises the administration of a photosensitizer, its accumulation in tumor tissue, and subsequent irradiation of the photosensitizer-loaded tumor, leading to the localized photoproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resulting oxidative damage ultimately culminates in tumor cell death, vascular shutdown, induction of an antitumor immune response, and the consequent destruction of the tumor. However, the ROS produced by PDT also triggers a stress response that, as part of a cell survival mechanism, helps cancer cells to cope with the PDT-induced oxidative stress and cell damage. These survival pathways are mediated by the transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and those that mediate the proteotoxic stress response. The survival pathways are believed to render some types of cancer recalcitrant to PDT and alter the tumor microenvironment in favor of tumor survival. In this review, the molecular mechanisms are elucidated that occur post-PDT to mediate cancer cell survival, on the basis of which pharmacological interventions are proposed. Specifically, pharmaceutical inhibitors of the molecular regulators of each survival pathway are addressed. The ultimate aim is to facilitate the development of adjuvant intervention strategies to improve PDT efficacy in recalcitrant solid tumors.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 82 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 2%
Canada 1 1%
Unknown 79 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 24 29%
Student > Bachelor 16 20%
Researcher 11 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 9 11%
Student > Master 6 7%
Other 16 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 17 21%
Medicine and Dentistry 16 20%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 17%
Unspecified 13 16%
Chemistry 5 6%
Other 17 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 February 2016.
All research outputs
#9,854,237
of 12,336,133 outputs
Outputs from Cancer and Metastasis Reviews
#455
of 553 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#179,887
of 263,057 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cancer and Metastasis Reviews
#4
of 6 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,336,133 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 553 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.8. This one is in the 8th percentile – i.e., 8% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 6 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 2 of them.