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Bexarotene Modulates Retinoid-X-Receptor Expression and Is Protective Against Neurotoxic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response and Apoptotic Pathway Activation

Overview of attention for article published in Molecular Neurobiology, April 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (74th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet


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12 Mendeley
Bexarotene Modulates Retinoid-X-Receptor Expression and Is Protective Against Neurotoxic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response and Apoptotic Pathway Activation
Published in
Molecular Neurobiology, April 2018
DOI 10.1007/s12035-018-1041-9
Pubmed ID

Yogita Dheer, Nitin Chitranshi, Veer Gupta, Mojdeh Abbasi, Mehdi Mirzaei, Yuyi You, Roger Chung, Stuart L. Graham, Vivek Gupta


Retinoid X-receptors (RXRs) are members of the ligand-dependent transcription factor family of nuclear receptors that have gained recent research focus as potential targets for neurodegenerative disorders. Bexarotene is an RXR pharmacological agonist that is shown to be neuroprotective through its effects in promoting amyloid beta (Aβ) uptake by the glial cells in the brain. This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of bexarotene on RXR expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and validate the drug effects in the brain in vivo. The protein expression studies were carried out using a combination of various drug treatment paradigms followed by expression analysis using Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Our study demonstrated that bexarotene promoted the expression of RXR α, β and γ isoforms at optimal concentrations in the cells and in the mice brain. Interestingly, a decreased RXR expression was identified in Alzheimer's disease mouse model and in the cells that were treated with Aβ. Bexarotene treatment not only rescued the RXR expression loss caused by Aβ treatment (p < 0.05) but also protected the cells against Aβ-induced ER stress (p < 0.05) and pro-apoptotic BAD protein activation (p < 0.05). In contrast, higher concentrations of bexarotene upregulated the ER stress proteins and led to BAD activation. Our study revealed that these downstream neurotoxic effects of high drug concentrations could be prevented by pharmacological targeting of the TrkB receptor. The ER stress and BAD activation induced by high concentrations of bexarotene were rescued by the TrkB agonist, 7,8 dihydroxyflavone (p < 0.05) while TrkB inhibitor CTX-B treatment further exacerbated these effects. Together, these findings suggest a cross-talk of TrkB signalling with downstream effects of bexarotene toxicity and indicate that therapeutic targeting of RXRs could prevent the Aβ-induced molecular neurotoxic effects.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 12 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 12 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Unspecified 2 17%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 17%
Researcher 2 17%
Other 2 17%
Student > Postgraduate 1 8%
Other 3 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 3 25%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 17%
Unspecified 2 17%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 8%
Psychology 1 8%
Other 3 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 7. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 April 2018.
All research outputs
of 12,802,184 outputs
Outputs from Molecular Neurobiology
of 2,091 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 274,103 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Molecular Neurobiology
of 11 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,802,184 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 83rd percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,091 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.9. This one has done well, scoring higher than 75% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 274,103 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 74% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 11 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.