To assess the association of psychological variables on leisure-time physical activity and sedentary time in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 163 patients with T2D, consecutively recruited at the Diabetes Centre of the Verona General Hospital. Scores on depression and anxiety symptoms, psychosocial factors (including self-efficacy, perceived interference, perceived severity, social support, misguided support behaviour, spouse's positive behaviour), physical activity and time spent sitting were ascertained using questionnaires responses to the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
Physical activity was significantly associated with higher social support in women and with increased self-efficacy in men. Sedentary time was significantly associated with higher perceived interference, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and with reduced diabetes self-efficacy in women, while it was associated solely with anxiety in men. Depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in women and anxiety symptoms in men were independent predictors of sedentary time when entered in a multivariable regression model also including age, BMI, haemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, perceived interference and self-efficacy as covariates.
Lower self-efficacy and higher symptoms of depression were closely associated with increased sedentary time in women, but not in men, with T2D. It is possible that individualized behavioural interventions designed to reduce depressive symptoms and to improve diabetes self-efficacy would ultimately reduce sedentary behaviours, particularly in women with T2D.