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The neurovascular unit as a selective barrier to polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) infiltration into the brain after ischemic injury

Overview of attention for article published in Acta Neuropathologica, December 2012
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (88th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (80th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
twitter
3 tweeters
facebook
1 Facebook page

Citations

dimensions_citation
119 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
144 Mendeley
Title
The neurovascular unit as a selective barrier to polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) infiltration into the brain after ischemic injury
Published in
Acta Neuropathologica, December 2012
DOI 10.1007/s00401-012-1076-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Gaby Enzmann, Caroline Mysiorek, Roser Gorina, Yu-Jung Cheng, Sharang Ghavampour, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, Vincent Prinz, Ulrich Dirnagl, Matthias Endres, Marco Prinz, Rudi Beschorner, Patrick N. Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Britta Engelhardt, Lydia Sorokin

Abstract

The migration of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) into the brain parenchyma and release of their abundant proteases are considered the main causes of neuronal cell death and reperfusion injury following ischemia. Yet, therapies targeting PMN egress have been largely ineffective. To address this discrepancy we investigated the temporo-spatial localization of PMNs early after transient ischemia in a murine transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model and human stroke specimens. Using specific markers that distinguish PMN (Ly6G) from monocytes/macrophages (Ly6C) and that define the cellular and basement membrane boundaries of the neurovascular unit (NVU), histology and confocal microscopy revealed that virtually no PMNs entered the infarcted CNS parenchyma. Regardless of tMCAO duration, PMNs were mainly restricted to luminal surfaces or perivascular spaces of cerebral vessels. Vascular PMN accumulation showed no spatial correlation with increased vessel permeability, enhanced expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, platelet aggregation or release of neutrophil extracellular traps. Live cell imaging studies confirmed that oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation fail to induce PMN migration across a brain endothelial monolayer under flow conditions in vitro. The absence of PMN infiltration in infarcted brain tissues was corroborated in 25 human stroke specimens collected at early time points after infarction. Our observations identify the NVU rather than the brain parenchyma as the site of PMN action after CNS ischemia and suggest reappraisal of targets for therapies to reduce reperfusion injury after stroke.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 144 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 1%
Czechia 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Korea, Republic of 1 <1%
Belgium 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
Unknown 136 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 33 23%
Researcher 23 16%
Student > Master 17 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 14 10%
Student > Bachelor 9 6%
Other 31 22%
Unknown 17 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 36 25%
Neuroscience 31 22%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 30 21%
Immunology and Microbiology 10 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 3%
Other 13 9%
Unknown 19 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 12. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 March 2014.
All research outputs
#1,144,644
of 12,219,721 outputs
Outputs from Acta Neuropathologica
#241
of 1,532 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#21,788
of 195,446 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Acta Neuropathologica
#3
of 15 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,219,721 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 90th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,532 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 10.7. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 195,446 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 15 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 80% of its contemporaries.