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Genotypic, physiological, and biochemical characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated from the environment in Cairo, Egypt

Overview of attention for article published in Parasitology Research, February 2016
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Title
Genotypic, physiological, and biochemical characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated from the environment in Cairo, Egypt
Published in
Parasitology Research, February 2016
DOI 10.1007/s00436-016-4927-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Gihan Mostafa Tawfeek, Sawsan Abdel-Hamid Bishara, Rania Mohammad Sarhan, Eman ElShabrawi Taher, Amira ElSaady Khayyal

Abstract

Acanthamoebae are the most common opportunistic amphizoic protozoa that cause life-threatening granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) in contact lens wearers. The present work aimed to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates in different environmental sources: water, soil, and dust in Cairo, Egypt and to characterize the pathogenic potential of the isolated Acanthamoeba using physiological and biochemical assays as well as determination of the genotypes in an attempt to correlate pathogenicity with certain genotypes. The study included the collection of 22 corneal scrapings from patients complaining of symptoms and signs indicative of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and 75 environmental samples followed by cultivation on non-nutrient agar plates preseeded with E. coli. Positive samples for Acanthamoeba were subjected to osmo- and thermo-tolerance assays and zymography analysis. Potentially pathogenic isolates were subjected to PCR amplification using genus-specific primer pair. Isolates were classified at the genotype level based on the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene (diagnostic fragment 3). The total detection rate for Acanthamoeba in environmental samples was 33.3 %, 31.4 % in water, 40 % in soil, and 20 % in dust samples. Three and two Acanthamoeba isolates from water and soil sources, respectively, had the potential for pathogenicity as they exhibited full range of pathogenic traits. Other 12 isolates were designated as weak potential pathogens. Only ten of the environmental isolates were positive in PCR and were classified by genotype analysis into T4 genotype (70 %), T3 (10 %) and T5 (20 %). Potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T4 (from water) and T5 (from soil) while weak potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T3 (from water) and T4 (from water and soil). Additionally, T7 genotype was isolated from keratitis patients. There is a considerable variation in the response of Acanthamoeba members of the same genotype to pathogenicity indicator assays making correlation of pathogenicity with certain genotypes difficult. Presence of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolates in habitats related directly to human populations represent a risk for human health. Isolation of Acanthamoeba genotype T7 from AK cases, which is commonly considered as nonpathogenic, might draw the attention to other Acanthamoeba genotypes considered as non pathogenic and reevaluate their role in production of human infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the presence and distribution of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the environment, Cairo, Egypt.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 17 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 17 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 24%
Student > Bachelor 4 24%
Student > Master 3 18%
Professor 1 6%
Student > Postgraduate 1 6%
Other 4 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 6 35%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 24%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 18%
Unspecified 2 12%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 6%
Other 1 6%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 June 2017.
All research outputs
#10,100,380
of 11,389,380 outputs
Outputs from Parasitology Research
#1,756
of 2,298 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#220,162
of 263,409 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasitology Research
#57
of 83 outputs
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