We assessed prevalence, associated factors and prognosis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia acquired in intensive care unit (ESBL-PE pneumonia) among carriers. Variables associated with nosocomial pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were also assessed.
A 6-year prospective study (May 2009-March 2015) in the medical ICU of an 850-bed university-affiliated hospital was conducted.
Of the 6303 patients admitted, 843 (13.4%) had ESBL-PE carriage detected. Among carriers, 111 (13%) patients developed ICU-acquired pneumonia of whom 48 (43%) had ESBL-PE pneumonia (6% of carriers). By multivariable analysis, SAPS II at admission >43 [OR 2.81 (1.16-6.79)] and colonization with Enterobacter sp. or K. pneumoniae species [OR 10.96 (2.93-41.0)] were independent predictive factors for ESBL-PE pneumonia in colonized patients, whereas receipt of >2 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid during the ICU stay [OR 0.24 (0.08-0.71)] was protective. Patients with ESBL-PE pneumonia had a higher SOFA score (p = 0.037) and more frequent septic shock at pneumonia onset (p = 0.047). However, ESBL-PE pneumonia was not an independent predictor of mortality. Twenty-five patients had pneumonia caused by CRB. Chronic renal insufficiency, administration of third-generation cephalosporin within the past 3 months, acute respiratory distress syndrome before pneumonia and prior therapy with a carbapenem or fluoroquinolones were associated with CRB pneumonia in this selected population.
Although few ESBL-PE carriers developed ESBL-PE pneumonia overall, a high proportion of pneumonia were caused by ESBL-PE in carriers developing ICUAP. ESBL-PE pneumonia was not an independent predictor of mortality. As pneumonia caused by CRB is increasing, knowledge of factors associated with ESBL-PE or CRB pneumonia may help empiric therapy of pneumonia among ESBL-PE carriers.