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The prenatal environment and type 1 diabetes

Overview of attention for article published in Diabetologia, May 2013
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2 tweeters

Citations

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52 Dimensions

Readers on

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63 Mendeley
Title
The prenatal environment and type 1 diabetes
Published in
Diabetologia, May 2013
DOI 10.1007/s00125-013-2929-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

L. C. Stene, E. A. M. Gale

Abstract

There is ample evidence that environmental factors are involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes, but the nature and timing of the interactions are poorly understood. The intrauterine environment is known to play a role in the later development of type 2 diabetes, and this review considers a possible role in type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is rare in those diagnosed before 6 months of age, but endogenous autoantibodies predictive of future type 1 diabetes may be detectable by 6-12 months of age, suggesting that environmental factors may operate before this age in some cases. Indirect evidence of a protective effect for the intrauterine environment comes from the observation that mothers with type 1 diabetes are less likely than affected fathers to transmit diabetes to their offspring, although the precise role (if any) is unclear. The risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes increases with maternal age at delivery, and with high birthweight, but these associations are weak and heterogeneous, and these factors are unlikely to be directly causally related to type 1 diabetes. No firm conclusion can be drawn from studies of maternal enteroviral infection or from various nutritional exposures. The birth process itself may play a role, as suggested by the slightly increased risk in children born by Caesarean section; lack of contact with maternal bacteria is one suggested mechanism. In sum, there is circumstantial evidence, but no proof of principle, that maternal or intrauterine conditions may modulate genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. The disease process culminating in type 1 diabetes typically begins in early life, but it is not clear whether the trail begins before or after birth.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 63 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 2%
United States 1 2%
Unknown 61 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 18 29%
Student > Master 11 17%
Researcher 8 13%
Student > Bachelor 6 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 10%
Other 14 22%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 27 43%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 12 19%
Engineering 4 6%
Unspecified 4 6%
Social Sciences 3 5%
Other 13 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 July 2013.
All research outputs
#7,639,627
of 12,225,951 outputs
Outputs from Diabetologia
#3,025
of 3,621 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#75,290
of 140,629 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Diabetologia
#46
of 77 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,225,951 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,621 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 16.1. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 140,629 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 77 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 28th percentile – i.e., 28% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.