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Neurophysiological Determinants of Theoretical Concepts and Mechanisms Involved in Pacing

Overview of attention for article published in Sports Medicine, March 2013
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (93rd percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

Mentioned by

1 blog
17 tweeters
6 Wikipedia pages


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Readers on

178 Mendeley
Neurophysiological Determinants of Theoretical Concepts and Mechanisms Involved in Pacing
Published in
Sports Medicine, March 2013
DOI 10.1007/s40279-013-0030-4
Pubmed ID

Bart Roelands, Jos de Koning, Carl Foster, Floor Hettinga, Romain Meeusen


Fatigue during prolonged exercise is often described as an acute impairment of exercise performance that leads to an inability to produce or maintain a desired power output. In the past few decades, interest in how athletes experience fatigue during competition has grown enormously. Research has evolved from a dominant focus on peripheral causes of fatigue towards a complex interplay between peripheral and central limitations of performance. Apparently, both feedforward and feedback mechanisms, based on the principle of teleoanticipation, regulate power output (e.g., speed) during a performance. This concept is called 'pacing' and represents the use of energetic resources during exercise, in a way such that all energy stores are used before finishing a race, but not so far from the end of a race that a meaningful slowdown can occur.It is believed that the pacing selected by athletes is largely dependent on the anticipated exercise duration and on the presence of an experientially developed performance template. Most studies investigating pacing during prolonged exercise in ambient temperatures, have observed a fast start, followed by an even pace strategy in the middle of the event with an end sprint in the final minutes of the race. A reduction in pace observed at commencement of the event is often more evident during exercise in hot environmental conditions. Further, reductions in power output and muscle activation occur before critical core temperatures are reached, indicating that subjects can anticipate the exercise intensity and heat stress they will be exposed to, resulting in a tactical adjustment of the power output. Recent research has shown that not only climatic stress but also pharmacological manipulation of the central nervous system has the ability to cause changes in endurance performance. Subjects seem to adapt their strategy specifically in the early phases of an exercise task. In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo. Manipulations of serotonin and, especially, noradrenaline, have the opposite effect and force subjects to decrease power output early in the time trial. Interestingly, after manipulation of brain serotonin, subjects are often unable to perform an end sprint, indicating an absence of a reserve capacity or motivation to increase power output. Taken together, it appears that many factors, such as ambient conditions and manipulation of brain neurotransmitters, have the potential to influence power output during exercise, and might thus be involved as regulatory mechanisms in the complex skill of pacing.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 17 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 178 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 3 2%
United States 3 2%
United Kingdom 2 1%
France 1 <1%
Canada 1 <1%
Unknown 168 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 46 26%
Student > Master 34 19%
Student > Bachelor 23 13%
Researcher 18 10%
Unspecified 13 7%
Other 44 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Sports and Recreations 84 47%
Unspecified 27 15%
Medicine and Dentistry 21 12%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 13 7%
Nursing and Health Professions 10 6%
Other 23 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 20. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 October 2018.
All research outputs
of 12,840,843 outputs
Outputs from Sports Medicine
of 2,147 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 143,473 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Sports Medicine
of 16 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,840,843 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,147 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 30.7. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 67% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 143,473 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 16 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.